By discussing two literary texts by immigrants from Europe in America, Isaac Bashevis Singerís Enemies, a Love Story (1966) and Edgar Hilsenrathís Fuck America (Bronskys Geständnis, 1980), the essays examines the Holocaust survivorsí gradual subversion of pre-determined national, religious, and communal identities. In each of the texts, the urban environment has a double and seemingly contradictory effect on the survivorsí lives: it is an obstacle but also an opportunity. The multiplying sounds, languages, faces, and buildings seem at first to be a threat to the protagonistsí existence but later on provide the means for their radical liberation. As an eternal outsider, the survivorís past experience correlates and is constantly juxtaposed to his current urban life. This juxtaposition creates a desire for anonymity, as an immediate reaction to the identity which was foisted upon each protagonist during the war in Europe.
Singerís Herman Broder and Hilsenrathís Jakob Bronsky are literary models that offer, in their grim life stories, a new set of human relationships, personal behavioral characteristics, and private day to day procedures that correlate to the deviant cityís schizoid features. My discussion of the novels relies on Michel de Certeauís The Practice of Everyday Life. De Certeauís observations regarding the ordinary mundane procedures that constitute the urban ďpedestrianĒ text illuminate the way in which the protagonistsí stories incorporate, rather than ignore or resolve, their contradictory, fragmentary, and unsystematic components.